BPA Expert

Authoritative forensic expert testimony in the disciplines of DNA, bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA), STRmix and biological fluids.

A preliminary review can be a useful step in assessing the broad strengths and weaknesses of a particular matter. This process can also identify documentary and any further evidence requirements.

I rigorous interrogation of the evidence will uncover underlying issues and determine the most appropriate pathway towards reviewing and reporting the matter.

Certain complex matters benefit from a draft report, which can open areas for discussion with Counsel, and potentially allow for defence to approach the prosecution.

Following a thorough evaluation of the evidence, a DNA expert report will be issued in accordance with the expert witness code of conduct. The report will be suitable for submission in evidence.

Preparations with Counsel are often conducted, such that the probative value of the evidence is weighed effectively and persuasively at Voir Dire, should such a hearing be required.

Extensive preparations are generally conducted in anticipation of substantive hearing. Which may include cross examination and evidence in chief scenarios specific to the matter .

Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA), is a forensic science developed to assess blood evidence, in order to form opinions as to pertinent factors within the crime scene.

As distinct from identification, the bloodstain pattern analyst considers the principles of biology, physics and mathematics in an effort to consider blood origin, wound cause, bloodletting directionality, perpetrator location, victim location, event timeline and factors subsequent to the event.

Given the often complex nature of serious crime scenes, our work involving Bloodstain pattern analysis regularly occurs in conjunction with DNA and other biologic fluids identification and review.

Bloodstain pattern analysis is broadly a subjective science, which commonly and correctly seeks to consider the limitations as to what this forensic science is able to specifically consider in a robust manner.

Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA), is a forensic science developed to assess blood evidence, in order to form opinions as to pertinent factors within the crime scene.

As distinct from identification, the bloodstain pattern analyst considers the principles of biology, physics and mathematics in an effort to consider blood origin, wound cause, bloodletting directionality, perpetrator location, victim location, event timeline and factors subsequent to the event.

Given the often complex nature of serious crime scenes, our work involving Bloodstain pattern analysis regularly occurs in conjunction with DNA and other biologic fluids identification and review.

Bloodstain pattern analysis is broadly a subjective science, which commonly and correctly seeks to consider the limitations as to what this forensic science is able to specifically consider in a robust manner.

BPA Error rate

The error rate of bloodstain pattern analysis and the reliability of bloodstain expert evidence has been the subject of significant scientific and jurisdictional attention. The National Academy of Sciences released a report in 2009 stating that conclusions were often “more subjective than scientific” and open to “context bias”.
Further, a study of 75 BPA analysts in 2021 found that 11% erroneously identified bloodstain pattern (classification) types.
Our experience is that bloodstain pattern analysis can be highly useful in certain circumstances, though great care and skill must be applied to the evidence.

Conclusivity

The reliability and conclusively of bloodstain pattern analysis strongly rests within the extent and nature of propositions that one is seeking to consider.
Bloodstain pattern analysis is largely a subjective field, with the analyst seeking to answer questions about the manner and sequence of events, through the resultant bloodstains.
The analyst must exercise great caution and discretion when setting parameters as to what the evidence is fundamentally capable of supporting.
For example, transfer stains have been erroneously reported as impact spatter, having catastrophic outcomes for the justice system.

Evidence Tampering

Crime scene evidence tampering is frequently encountered when inspecting bloodstain pattern evidence.
Rudimentary weapon and hand wipe down, can extend through to sophisticated efforts to chemically remove bloodstain and DNA evidence.
Clean up attempts can drastically alter the bloodstain patterns, risking erroneous interpretation.  An experienced analyst should identify clean-up efforts through interpretation of altered bloodstains such as wipes and swipes, and the presence of voids in patterns.
Bloodstaining and DNA are readily removed during laundering, however residual deposits are frequently trapped in areas such as stitching and zippers.

Luminol

Luminol is a chemical used in forensic investigation, which emits light (luminesce) upon contact with blood. It is highly useful to detect blood that cannot be visually observed, and where crime scene clean-up is suspected.
Luminol has a known propensity to react with some cleaning products including bleach.
Where luminol reactions are observed, confirmation of blood should be obtained through confirmatory testing. The observation and recovery of obscured and concealed blood, may require extensive physical searching of crevices. and would subsequently be utilised to conduct DNA testing for consideration of identity.

BPA Contamination

Contamination or crime scene alteration occurs frequently, through offender efforts to clean up, or unintended acts.
Homicides and serious assaults often involve first responders such as paramedics and police officers seeking to preserve life, which invariably result in alteration or production of new bloodstain patterns, for example through CPR attempts.
Insect activity can occur, with flies feeding on blood and regurgitating it to new locations, with this ‘fly speck’ testing positive for blood and having the appearance of blood spatter.
Skilled and realistic assessment of the crime scene can help establish events.

Crime scene examination

Accurate crime scene examination is crucial to bloodstain pattern analysis.
Meticulous recording of the bloodstain patterns through extensive photography and note taking is required for thorough evaluation and review of bloodstain patterns.
BPA often invokes the assumption that all reddish/brown visible staining is the consequence of the bloodshed event in question.  A robust assumption in this regard can only be evidenced once sufficient testing of the staining has established that the stain is in fact blood.
Bloodstain review is commonly conducted upon high resolution photographs.
We can advise and conduct a physical crime scene examination should it be required.
Error rate

BPA Error rate

The error rate of bloodstain pattern analysis and the reliability of bloodstain expert evidence has been the subject of significant scientific and jurisdictional attention. The National Academy of Sciences released a report in 2009 stating that conclusions were often “more subjective than scientific” and open to “context bias”.
Further, a study of 75 BPA analysts in 2021 found that 11% erroneously identified bloodstain pattern (classification) types.
Our experience is that bloodstain pattern analysis can be highly useful in certain circumstances, though great care and skill must be applied to the evidence.
Conclusivity

Conclusivity

The reliability and conclusively of bloodstain pattern analysis strongly rests within the extent and nature of propositions that one is seeking to consider.
Bloodstain pattern analysis is largely a subjective field, with the analyst seeking to answer questions about the manner and sequence of events, through the resultant bloodstains.
The analyst must exercise great caution and discretion when setting parameters as to what the evidence is fundamentally capable of supporting.
For example, transfer stains have been erroneously reported as impact spatter, having catastrophic outcomes for the justice system.
Tampering

Evidence Tampering

Crime scene evidence tampering is frequently encountered when inspecting bloodstain pattern evidence.
Rudimentary weapon and hand wipe down, can extend through to sophisticated efforts to chemically remove bloodstain and DNA evidence.
Clean up attempts can drastically alter the bloodstain patterns, risking erroneous interpretation.  An experienced analyst should identify clean-up efforts through interpretation of altered bloodstains such as wipes and swipes, and the presence of voids in patterns.
Bloodstaining and DNA are readily removed during laundering, however residual deposits are frequently trapped in areas such as stitching and zippers.
Luminol

Luminol

Luminol is a chemical used in forensic investigation, which emits light (luminesce) upon contact with blood. It is highly useful to detect blood that cannot be visually observed, and where crime scene clean-up is suspected.
Luminol has a known propensity to react with some cleaning products including bleach.
Where luminol reactions are observed, confirmation of blood should be obtained through confirmatory testing. The observation and recovery of obscured and concealed blood, may require extensive physical searching of crevices. and would subsequently be utilised to conduct DNA testing for consideration of identity.
Contamination

BPA Contamination

Contamination or crime scene alteration occurs frequently, through offender efforts to clean up, or unintended acts.
Homicides and serious assaults often involve first responders such as paramedics and police officers seeking to preserve life, which invariably result in alteration or production of new bloodstain patterns, for example through CPR attempts.
Insect activity can occur, with flies feeding on blood and regurgitating it to new locations, with this ‘fly speck’ testing positive for blood and having the appearance of blood spatter.
Skilled and realistic assessment of the crime scene can help establish events.
CRIME SCENE

Crime scene examination

Accurate crime scene examination is crucial to bloodstain pattern analysis.
Meticulous recording of the bloodstain patterns through extensive photography and note taking is required for thorough evaluation and review of bloodstain patterns.
BPA often invokes the assumption that all reddish/brown visible staining is the consequence of the bloodshed event in question.  A robust assumption in this regard can only be evidenced once sufficient testing of the staining has established that the stain is in fact blood.
Bloodstain review is commonly conducted upon high resolution photographs.
We can advise and conduct a physical crime scene examination should it be required.

DNA QUESTIONS

DNA Likelihood Ratio

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Question 1

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Question 2

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Question 3

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 4

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DNA Transfer

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Question 1

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Question 2

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 3

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 4

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DNA Activity Level Reporting

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Question 1

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Question 2

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 3

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 4

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DNA - Sexual Assault

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Is it possible to determine physical traits from a DNA profile?

Forensic DNA analysis targets areas of the DNA which do not provide any information on a persons appearance.  These regions of the DNA molecule are referred to as non-coding, or junk DNA.

Question 2

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Question 3

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 4

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DNA Report

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Question 1

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 2

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 3

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 4

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DNA - Facts

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Question 1

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 2

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 3

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 4

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DNA - Court

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Question 1

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 2

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 3

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 4

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DNA - Laboratory

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Question 1

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 2

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 3

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 4

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

DNA - Terms

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question1

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 2

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 3

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 4

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 5

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 6

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 7

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 8

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 9

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 10

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 11

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 12

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 13

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 14

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 15

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 16

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 17

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 18

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 419

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.

Question 20

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur. Elementum gravida mauris massa sagittis. Euismod adipiscing amet nunc dui facilisis quam. Nunc rutrum sit dis ut nisi lacus dignissim sed tincidunt. A fermentum natoque tristique turpis integer vestibulum viverra. Massa eget sed cursus amet. Lobortis id placerat vitae nam aliquet aliquet. Elit lorem vitae dictum elementum. Ullamcorper ultricies massa risus ac facilisis convallis in urna.